Criminal Justice Ethics
1. In the middle of 19th century the main ideology in the correctional system was “Rechtsstaat” ideology. It means that the biggest power is in the hands of parliamentarian law, and the administration is reviewed by the courts. By the end of 19th century new ideology – “welfare state” – appeared. It put protection of the society on the first place, rather than protection of the citizens. In parallel with that, Philadelphian prison system required the punishment to affect the character and psychology of the prisoner. Current correctional system combines the “Rechtsstaat” and “welfare state” ideologies, and, in my opinion, it is the most profitable and suitable choice (Greve, Vagn and Annika Snare).
2. The first ethical problem is that guards often refer to themselves as “warehousers” or “baby-sitters”, and by doing that put themselves on a level higher than the prisoners. Next, and in continuation with the first problem, some guards say that they would not even save the inmates if the building was on fire, while one of the duties of the guards is to protect the prisoners. Lastly, some guards complained that nowadays they are officially not allowed to hit the inmates, as they could in the past. All these unethical cases show that guards tend to put themselves higher than the prisoners, which is a proof of the imperfection of the correction system (Conover, Ted).
3. Probation is a time when a person stays under the supervision of the court, while he or she had yet not received an incarceration. Parole is the practice of releasing a person from the incarceration in order to let him or her serve their portion for the society and before the actual term of the incarceration has ended. A person can be allowed to start the probation in case he or she has the proper conditions and allowances. The same system works in case of paroles (Bureau of Justice Statistics).
4. Obviously, when a person gets into prison, he or she loses the basic rights of freedom: freedom of changing the place of living, the right of privacy, the right to communicate is strictly limited, and so on. These opportunities are taken away for the purpose of imprisonment. However, sometimes even the basic human rights can be violated, for example when the inmates are raped. In this case, they can be protected by the U.S. Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) or NGOs which have their goal as monitoring the proper work of PREA (Just Detention International).
5. When an inmate actually arrives to prison, he or she is supposed to leave all the personal belongings outside the cell, sometimes the mobile phone is also taken away. This is done to make sure that no sharp objects, drugs and so on pass the cell door. After this, the prisoner is given an orange uniform with a personal id number on it in order to bake sure he or she would not be confused with anyone else. Lastly, …