History and Anthropology Term Definitions
Kouros, originating from the Greek κοῦρος, a word used to describe male youth of a noble rank, is a term used for description of the free-standing male sculptures that share strong athletic qualities, first originating from the archaic period of the Ancient Greece. Kouros sculptures differ with the strict frontality of overall composition, a sum of forms and lines of a human body. The facial expressions often share “vivid nature and an archaic smile” (Guralnick, Eleanor). Another set of features, often typical for Kouros sculptures is that they are life-sized, beardless, sharing advanced posture with strong athletic qualities. An example of Kouros sharing aforementioned qualities is Asclepion Paros Kouros statue, which shows an archaic smile and immortalization of youth, capturing both physical and mental beauty, depicted in posture and expressiveness. Since Kouros statues have often been placed at the burial sites of important and wealthy people, their aim was to praise the nobleness and heroism, which explains a call for perfection in portrayal.
Triglyph, a term used to describe an element in classical architecture, representing the Doric freeze. Coming from the Greek word τρίγλυφος, the meaning behind the term consists of two parts, which are "tri", meaning "three", and glyphō, which means "to cut". The typical elements of triglyph architecture are tablets that are vertically channeled with addition of triangular channels. The triglyphs always alternate with the metopes, the spaces of rectangular shape, which are often decorated with various art forms and relevant reliefs (Rykwert, Joseph). An example of triglyph with decorated metopes can be seen in The Circuit, Bath, Somerset, part of a freeze architectural art form of 1754 by John Wood. In this particular example, the frieze, portraying the Doric entablature, includes unique decoration with alternation of the triglyphs and more than 500 symbolic elements that range from Masonic and nautical symbols to depiction of the serpents and discoveries of science, typical for the time period. Uniting architectural form, artistic value, and symbolism, this example shows a unity of cultural and historic heritage of the triglyphs.
Sphinx is a complex mixture of architectural, cultural, mythological, psycho-social, archeological, and religious aspects. Representing a creature that shares the body of a lion, head of a human being, and, in several cases, the wings of a bird, the sphinx acts “as a symbolism of merciless and authoritarian creature of mythical strength and wisdom” (Bauer, Wise). A sum of cultural heritage, in relation to the sphinxes, is a Great Sphinx. Acting as symbolic emblem of Egypt, the Great Sphinx is a gigantic statue that shares the form of a crouching lion and a head of a human being. Being a subject of constant debates among the scientists, the Great Sphinx is an example of enigmatic history and a complex architectural structure, which leads archeologists to believe that this work of art may be more ancient than it is believed to be (Bauer, Wise). Originating from Egyptian word "shesep-ankh", which means a "living image" in translation, it …