Annotated Bibliography on Gender Issues
Exavery, A., Lutambi, A. M., Wilson, N., Mubyazi, G. M., Pemba, S., & Mbaruku, G. (2013). Gender-based distributional skewness of the United Republic of Tanzania’s health workforce cadres: A cross-sectional health facility survey. Human Resources for Health, 11, 28. doi:10.1186/1478-4491-11-28
The distribution of health care cadres in the United Republic of Tanzania is very skewed. It is reflected in the fact that nursing and midwifery cadres are mostly female-dominant, while COs and MDs are male-dominant. Gender inequalities in health care industry have negative implications for patients, some of whom do not seek expert help unless they are able to see a provider of their gender. The case of Tanzania demonstrates that gender inequalities in health care should be addressed across all levels, including legislative and public relations.
Govender, V., & Penn-Kekana, L. (2008). Gender biases and discrimination: A review of health care interpersonal interactions. Global Public Health, 1(sup. 1), 90-103.
In their work, Govender & Penn-Kekana consider cooperation between healthcare stakeholders from a gender and health equity perspective. The findings allow concluding that gender biases are evident across all levels of healthcare delivery environment, and eventually affect a patient-provider interaction. The latter has multiple negative implications, most importantly health inequality. In addition to considering outcomes of gender inequality, Govemder & Penn-Kekana contribute to the existing body of knowledge by suggesting interventions to address the problem at different health care levels. The suggestions include interventions at health system legislation and policy levels, gender sensitive training, and the launch of health literacy programs.
Newman, C. J., Fogarty, L., Makoae, L. N., & Reavely, E. (2011). Occupational segregation, gender essentialism and male primacy as major barriers to equity in HIV/AIDS caregiving: Findings from Lesotho. International Journal for Equity in Health, 10, 24. doi:10.1186/1475-9276-10-24
Gender segregation of occupations is observable across nations, but is particularly notable in developing countries. The experience of sub-Saharan Africa suggests that gender inequalities are acute in HIV/AIDS caregiving, where women and girls perform informal, and usually unpaid, work. If boys and men entered the sector, this would shape the equity and sustainability of HIV/AIDS caregiving; however, this situation is far from realization. The data suggested by Newman et al demonstrate the relationship between gender inequalities and the quality of healthcare services delivered to patients. In HIV/AIDS caregiving, gender inequalities are a direct threat to the lives of patients.
Newman, C. (2014). Time to address gender discrimination and inequality in the health workforce. Human Resources for Health, 12, 25. doi:10.1186/1478-4491-12-25
The researcher suggests that “Gender is a key factor operating in the health workforce” (Newman, 2014, p. 25). The national health care sector faces with systemic gender discrimination and inequality that affects organization culture, increases turnover, and eventually degrades patient outcomes. The Newman article contributes to research by providing accurate definition and examples of gender inequality in nursing practice. In addition, …