Infertility is the inability of a couple of childbearing age to conceive a child during an unprotected and regular sexual life (Lowdermilk, Perry & Cashion, 2010). According to the World Health Organization, about 8% of couples are faced with the problem of infertility (Sarkar & Gupta, 2016). Male infertility factor is considered when a woman is healthy, but the man has a violation of formation or the maturation of sperm, fertilizing capacity of sperm, and disorders of ejaculatory or sexual functions. Female factor is when infertility is experienced by a woman (Lowdermilk, Perry & Cashion, 2010).
There are different diagnostic methods of examination of women and men. To examine the diagnosis in women medical specialists use ultrasound examination of the small pelvis, hormonal testing, x-examination of the uterus and fallopian tubes, hysteroscopy, laparoscopic, genetic and immunological tests. Male diagnostic methods include an examination of semen, cultivation sperm examination, andrological, examination of the integration of sperm acrosome, DNA fragmentation of sperm, genetic, hormonal and immunological examination (Lowdermilk, Perry & Cashion, 2010).
The medical specialist may prescribe medication treatment when infertility occurred due to external factors or as a complication of the disease. Traditional medical care for infertility is often held by a combination of the certain drugs. There is also non-medical treatment, when the couple may use several herbal decoctions and infusions, special food, or yoga classes that have a beneficial effect on the reproductive functions of both men and women. Women and men who have infertility also should not be left without psychosocial support. Multidirectional and constant psycho-correction of the stressful condition can improve the effectiveness of treatment. Besides, methods of reproductive surgery allow assessing the state of the reproductive system organs, identifying, and immediately correcting the disorder that prevents the normal sexual function, using sparing surgical procedures. In some cases, reproductive surgery can be a major treatment option, as a result of which a couple may avoid conducting in vitro fertilization (IVF). Surgical procedures include laparoscopy, hysteroscopy, laparotomy and other methods (Lowdermilk, Perry & Cashion, 2010).
Thus, if the couple practiced unprotected sex for one year and their attempts were unsuccessful, a maternity nurse has to provide them with all necessary information about their situation and possible options to become parents. The couple may ask about any fertilization options they have. In this case, the nurse can advise using the techniques of artificial fertilization, such as IVF (Lowdermilk, Perry & Cashion, 2010). The meaning of the method of IVF is the fertilization in the laboratory, and it is considered the most efficient way of combating infertility. Additionally, patients may be encouraged to adopt a child, and, thus, become not only parents but also help the child to have a real family. It is also possible to choose surrogacy when another woman bears a child, genetic parents of whom are the couple (Lowdermilk, Perry & Cashion, 2010). Infertile people may wonder about the possibility of infertility in healthy people. Unfortunately, it may occur in …