Influence of Maternal Breast Milk Ingestion Annotated Bibliography example

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Gregory, K. E., Samuel, B. S., Houghteling, P., Shan, G., Ausubel, F. M., Sadreyev, R. I., & Walker, W. A. (2016). Influence of maternal breast milk ingestion on acquisition of the intestinal microbiome in preterm infants.
Microbiome, 4(68). doi 10.1186/s40168-016-0214-x.

The article under consideration focuses on the role of postnatal time, birth weight, and nutrition on the development of intestinal microbiome in preterm infants. The authors of the research have made a major focus on maternal breast milk and its influence on the colonization of the specific microbes in infants’ intestines during the first two months of life of preterm infants. The article is a good insight into the understanding of
the role of maternal breast milk on infant development during the first days of life.

The research includes 30 preterm infants born in less than 32 weeks in Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston. The inclusion criteria are healthy population following maternal breast milk, pasteurized donor human milk, or specialized preterm infant formula diets. The researchers divided the participants by 10 subjects in each nutrition group. The researchers ensured that each group received 100% of the prescribed nutrition. Also,
all the infants did not have differences in birth weight, gestational age, and/or type of delivery. The exclusion criteria covered ductus arteriosus, sepsis, and/or necrotizing enterocolitis. Gender did not play any role.
Also, it is important to mention that researchers excluded infants whose mothers who consumed antibiotics before and/or after the delivery (in case with maternal breast milk feeding). The study follows the longitudinal
study design, where the researchers have examined stool samples of the infants to investigate nutritional exposures on preterm infant microbiome. The examination of the samples covered three groups, divided by the
nutritional methods of infants, maternal breast milk, pasteurized donor human milk, or specialized preterm infant formula.

The main goal of the research is to prove the positive influence of maternal breast milk on the formation of gestational system and intestinal microbiome in preterm infants born prior 32 weeks. The study included three
different nutrition types in order to provide grounded argumentation of the findings. The research findings report about the influence of postpartum time, weight immediately after birth, and nutrition on intestinal microbiome of infants. Also, the results confirm the presence of higher initial bacterial diversity in infants, who followed maternal breast milk diet. The research results have confirmed that maternal breast milk feeding from the first days of life helps the colonization of intestine in preterm infants. These findings are significant for the contemporary society, where mothers have a tendency to refuse from breast feeding giving a priority to further career development. Moreover, the cases of low level of knowledge about the role of breastfeeding for infants during the first days of their life may lead to gestational and intestines troubles in …

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