Memory Acquisition and Retention Case Study Q&A
Identify and define the mental processes that account for mistakes in identifying strangers. Identify the circumstances that affect the accuracy of perceptions in identifying strangers.The following are some of the mental processes that explain the mistakes in identifying strangers:
Memory Acquisition refers to the volume of information individual stores in his or her brain at the inception of crime. Another mental process is Memory Retention, referring to the volume of information retained during the duration between the time of crime and the process of booking and the time when the suspects are lined up for identification. The final mental process is Memory Retrieval, referring to the volume of information that an individual is able to recall during the time when suspects are lined up for identification. The following are the factors that affect the accuracy of perceptions in identifying strangers: the time frame for observing a stranger and interruptions at the time of observation. In addition to these, concentrations on the observation, stress on the witness at the time of identification and race of the witness and stranger, for example, some races such as Asians especially the Chinese appear identical.
Why are photo identifications the most unreliable eyewitness identification procedure?
Most suspects do not really focus on the photo at the time it is taken. Additionally, making faces by the investigating officers at the suspects at the time of taking pictures. Finally, some people tend to appear identical for example, Asians especially the Chinese. Photos taken always focus on the facial appearance of the suspects, which is subject to change with time. Identify and explain the rationales behind the three justifications for the exclusionary rule.
Which justification does the U.S. Supreme Court use today?
The first justification is found where the courts justify the rule by alleging the necessity of upholding the Fourth Amendment as seen in the 1994 case of Weeks v. United States. The rationale applied in this justification is the right to be free from illegal searches and seizures as guided by the constitution. In this case, the exclusionary rule is how to enforce this right. The recent deterrence justification is purposely put to check on the police misconduct. The rationale guiding this rule is that the police will be deterred from conducting illegal searches and seizures if there is no benefits that follow. This justification is more practical while the previous one justifies the existence of exclusionary rule as a fundamental part of the Fourth Amendment and it forms the basis on which the U.S. Supreme Court delivers its rulings.
List and explain five exceptions to the exclusionary rule.
The primary understanding of the exclusionary rule equilibriums the need to prevent violations of Fourth Amendment alongside the mistakes that the police makes when carrying out investigations. The exceptions to the rule include the following: A subsequent, uncorrupted source had a significant part in concluding the evidence. For example, if …