Relationships between the Human and the Divinity in the Religious views of Hebrews and the Ancient Greeks example

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Relationships between the Human and the Divinity in the Religious views of Hebrews and the Ancient Greeks


It is quite obvious, that the development of a culture significantly depends on the systems of beliefs and attitudes, which are shared by a certain group of people. On the other hand the system of beliefs and attitudes is formed according to the specific experience and environment, which influence the activities of the people. In such a way beliefs and attitudes are interrelated with culture. This interrelation causes emergence of cultural and religious diversity in the world. However, various religions of the ancient world are not completely different. The psychological peculiarities of human cognition as well as cultural intercommunication, as a result of political influence redistribution or commercial trade, has led to significant similarities of human beliefs and attitudes. Hence, various cultures and religions have differences and similarities, which can be observed on the example of relationships between the human and the Divinity. Investigation of the Ancient Greek religion and the religion of the Hebrews provides evidence about the different and similar patterns in human-Divinity interrelationships, as exemplified by Odysseus and Athena as well as Job and God.

The research of two ancient texts, Odyssey and Bible, show that the power and influence of the Hebrews’ God is more significant than the power and influence of any particular god in the Ancient Greek Olympus, which makes the human and the Divinity more distant in significance in the Hebrew image of the Universe, while both, the Greek gods and Hebrew God, provide mentoring for the human and guidance in human’s journey, to find the most favorable path in the earthly life.

The Relationships between Odysseus and Athena

The relationships of Odysseus and Athena are based on the shared vision and core values, as Athena is the goddess of wisdom and Odysseus is described in the Ancient Greek mythology as a wise man, particularly being the creator of the tactical idea to build the famous Trojan horse, enabling the Greeks to conquer Troy. In the beginning of Ancient Greek epic poem “Odyssey” Athena is shown as truly dedicated to Odysseus, as she tells Zeus, the king of the Olympus, the following: “But it’s Odysseus I’m worried about, that discerning, ill-fated man” (Puchner, Odyssey, Book 1, p.333). Thus, Athena provides patronage for Odysseus in front of the main god in the Olympus, because she feels sympathy to this hero, who represents her in the world of human. On the other side, Odysseus displays commitment to the goddess in the form of rich sacrifices offered to her and other deathless residents of the Olympus, which is acknowledged by Zeus (Puchner, Odyssey, Book 1, p.334). Athena does not have control over all the circumstances, but has to find different ways to guide Odyssey and assist him in his journey back to his home island Ithaca. Particularly, she has to appear in front of the Odysseus’s son, …

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