Risk and Cohort Study Design example

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Risk and Cohort Study Design

Part 1

Diabetes mellitus has become a serious health concern in the United States. The validity of this statement is confirmed by the statistics presented by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2016), according to which 29 million of Americans are living with diabetes, while 86 million have prediabetes. Presently, diabetes is the 7th leading cause of death in the country (World Health Organization, 2016). High prevalence of diabetes mellitus encourages experts to examine the causes and consequences of the disease across various population groups. Eventually, it was discovered that Hispanics are at a greater risk of diabetes mellitus when compared to other ethnic groups. The data collected by Valencia (2016) suggest that while only 7.6% of non-Hispanic whites and 9% of Asian Americans have diabetes, 12.8% of Hispanics have this disease. The problem of high prevalence of diabetes among Hispanics is of particular importance in Miami, Florida. It is because Hispanics constitute 12.8% of the local population (American Diabetes Association, n. d.). High prevalence of diabetes mellitus among Hispanics living in Miami results in a number of health problems. In order to validate this assumption, experts of the American Diabetes Association (n. d.) point out the relationship between diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases, eye problems, dyslipidemia and kidney diseases. Moreover, high prevalence of diabetes mellitus is deemed a serious economic burden. The data collected by American Diabetes Association (n. d.) suggest that in 2013, diabetes mellitus resulted in 176 billion for direct medical cost and 69 million for reduced productivity. Taking into consideration the presented data, it is assumed that Miami, Florida, needs an effective screening program. The program is required to identify the population at risk. It is also helpful to timely diagnose and treat diabetes mellitus.

Part 2

It is proposed to reduce the incidence of diabetes among Hispanics living in Miami through regular screening. Based on evidence-based nursing practice, screening is deemed an effective preventive measure (Gordis, 2013). The efficiency of screening is shaped by two factors. Most importantly, it facilitates timely identification of individuals who are at increased risk of diabetes. It is argued that timely identification and preventive intervention are less costly and more effective when compared to treating the already existing or old disease (Gordis, 2013). At the same time, screening is considered an effective approach to collect data about the target group and design interventions that are consistent with their needs and expectations. The validity of this statement can be tested in the context of the Sports, Play, and Active Recreation for Kids (SPARK) initiative launched in Miami-Dade County. This intervention is an evidence-based program that aims at increasing residents’ awareness and physical activity (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013). While relying on data retrieved from regular screening of the target group, the initiators of the intervention have managed to increase residents’ physical activity, thus reduce the incidence of obesity and related health problems.

Noteworthy, the proposed intervention is consistent with the research on the causes …

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