Evaluation of Epidemiological Problem example

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Evaluation of Epidemiological Problem

Diabetes-related morbidity and mortality rates have increased dramatically over the last decades and it is reasonably considered the plague of the 21st century. Lifestyle, genetics and many other factors can lead to disorders of carbohydrate metabolism. Such group of metabolic diseases as Diabetes Mellitus (DM) can have a life-long negative impact on individual’s life as well as create a significant social and economic burden due to disability and increased healthcare costs. According to the International Diabetes Federation as of 2012, 387 million of people have diabetes worldwide and by 2035 this estimate will increase up to 592 million (Matt Petersen, 2013).

The abovementioned makes diabetes a significant public health issue, which needs to be studied, and further public health strategies should be developed and implemented in order to prevent this disease or increase life expectancy and quality of life of people with diabetes.The aim of this paper is to review available information on diabetes, including signs, symptoms and possible complications, evaluate incidence and prevalence rates across different populations and geographical regions, with the special focus on the State of Florida, investigate risk factors and costs of the disease, examine methods of diagnosis and surveillance and suggest possible ways to address this public health issue.Background. Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a chronic endocrine and metabolic disorder characterized by increased levels of blood glucose. This condition results from deficiency of insulin secretion, insulin action or both (American Diabetes Association, 2011).

There are two main types of diabetes: Type 1 (insulin-dependent) and Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent). The first one occurs due to autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic β-cells resulting in decreased insulin secretion. Whereas Type 2 diabetes usually affects people with obesity or results from high carbohydrate consumption and is associated with insulin resistance (decreased sensitivity of target tissues to insulin). Both types of Diabetes Mellitus involve hyperglycaemia with consequent symptoms such as glucosuria, polyuria, and polydipsia (American Diabetes Association, 2011).However, the most dangerous are cases of uncontrolled diabetes, which can result in coma and death, if not treated rapidly. There are also long-term complications of diabetes, including retinopathy with possible loss of vision; nephropathy leading to renal failure; diabetic foot with high risk of amputation; cardiovascular symptoms and disorder of lipoproteins metabolism resulting in atherosclerosis (American Diabetes Association, 2011).

According to National Diabetes Statistics Report (2014) diabetes remains the 7th leading cause of death in the United States in 2010. The incidence of diabetes remained relatively constant from 1980 through 1990, starting from 1992 to 2010 the number of cases detected each year increased by 3 timed. This dramatic statistic can be associated with increased obesity and sedentary life style and population aging (Diabetes Report Card 2012). The global prevalence of diabetes in 2014 was estimated to be 8.3% in adult population among 20-79 years (IDF Diabetes Atlas, 2014). The highest prevalence of diabetes is in the North America and the Caribbean Region (11.4% with 39 millions of people with diabetes), the second …

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