Cardiovascular Disease and Diet Planning example

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Cardiovascular Disease and Diet Planning


Globally, the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has increased manifolds over the last few decades. Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is a resultant of CVD which entails insufficient supply of oxygen to the cardiac myocytes. Such a lack of oxygen supply which does not match with the cardiac metabolic demands results in the necrosis of the cardiac myocyte. The term IHD, further covers the medical conditions of unstable angina and acute myocardial infarction (AMI).

Katritsis, Camm, & Gersh (2016) found the Joint ECS/ACCF/AHA/WHF Task Force formulating the third universal definition of myocardial infarction (MI). As per the definition, a MI diagnosis is established if the level of a cardiac troponin (I or T) is above the 99th percentile of a normal population. In addition to the elevated biomarker, one or more of the following clinical manifestations is essential:

“Symptoms of ischemia; new significant ST/T wave changes or new LBBB; pathological Q waves on ECG; imaging evidence of new loss of viable myocardium or regional wall motion abnormality; and intracoronary thrombus diagnosed by angiography or autopsy.” (Katritsis, Camm, & Gersh, p.231)

In the given scenario, the patient presented at the emergency department after having an episode of severe chest pain which had a sudden onset, and radiated into his left arm. Other clinical findings included pale skin, cyanotic nail beds and lips, being frightened, and having shortness of breath. The client appeared to be cold, sweaty and vomited shortly after arriving. Blood pressure measurement of 100/70 mmHg was suggestive of hypotension. The physical findings and the clinical presentations of the patient are indicative of him having suffered a MI (Ferri, 2015). Jagadeesh, Balakumar, & Maung-U (2015) refute that severe loss of myocardial contractility takes place within a minute of the evolution of a MI. The pathophysiological change is responsible for the drop in blood pressure, and the diaphoretic state and pallor of the skin due to decreased oxygen supply in the circulation. Ischemia is the cause of the pain which occurs due to the involvement of the neural pathway via the thoracic and cervical nerves (Bope & Kellerman, 2015).

Watson & O’Brien (2017) observe that the risk factors for IHD could be divided into fixed and potentially modifiable. The modifiable elements refer to the lifestyle conditions which predispose an individual to CVD, and subsequently to a MI. These variables include obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, alcohol abuse, poor nutritional intake, stress, and sedentary lifestyle (Watson & O’Brien). The predisposing factors in Mr. E’s lifestyle that placed him in the high risk category for a MI encompass high BMI index, elevated cholesterol levels, sedentary lifestyle with lack of outdoor physical activities, and possible stress related to his profession as a corporate lawyer.

A brief period of few days after a MI necessitates the administration of liquid diet to the patient. A generous cardiac output is required to meet the metabolic demands of digestion, absorption, and metabolism of food (Nix, 2016). The administration of …

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