Discuss how constructed wetland system works to treat municipal wastewater. What advantages does a constructed wetland system have over conventional sewage treatment?
Constructed wetlands are manmade marshes that function as a natural filtration system of wastewater. In addition, this system also decomposes waste filtered from wastewater. If the water filtered by constructed wetlands are exposed to air, aquatic plants, and sun for 20 to 30 days, the water becomes clean enough to be used safely in farms to water crops and fishponds to raise fish (Cunningham & Cunningham, 2010, p. 264). Hence, water filtered from constructed wetlands may be used in processes that contribute to food sources for human survival. A constructed wetland system is more efficient than conventional sewage treatments because it is significantly less expensive. In addition, constructed wetland systems use less energy, and does not required purifying substances such as chlorine and other tools such as filter and pumps.
Furthermore, constructed wetlands are easier to build and may be built in free spaces even in spaces within buildings (Cunningham & Cunningham, 2010, p. 264). Another issue concerning conventional sewage treatments that make constructed wetland systems more appealing is that facilities use chemicals to treat water. Although there are no conclusive results about the effect of chemicals on water for human consumption, there are risks involved in the use of these chemicals, especially when wastewater for human consumption or for growing crops and fish will be used following its treatment with chemicals (Cunningham & Cunningham, 2010, p. 263).
What are the observed and expected effects of climate change? Which of these effects do you believe is the most threatening to human health?
The observed and expected effects of climate change include changes in the composition of the atmosphere particularly the rate of CO2, climate change, and the gradual warming of the earth caused by the increased levels of energy that remains within the lower atmosphere (Cunningham & Cunningham, 2010, p. 213). Other expected effects of climate change include the frequent and intense occurrence of heat waves, rising sea levels due to global warming that leads to melting polar ice caps and glaciers, and the formation of weather disturbances such as storms (Cunningham & Cunningham, 2010, p. 213).
Drought, the frequent occurrence of wildfire, and changing seasonal patterns such as early spring are also the results of climate change (Cunningham & Cunningham, 2010, p. 217). Climate change leads to changing climate patterns that may be observed in the increased frequency and intensity of storms compared to previous weather disturbances (Cunningham & Cunningham, 2010, p. 214). The effect of climate change that would be most threatening to human health is drought. People need food and water to survive. Periodic droughts, however, kill crops and lead to water scarcity. This could lead to people to resort to any food or water available, even those that are unsafe for consumption. This leads to the spread of diseases as well as malnutrition (Filho, …