Small Group Analysis
For the individual, direct contact with the social reality - is the interaction with the surrounding social group. The concept of the group is one of the central places in sociological research. The group is a collection of people who come together on the basis of mutual activities or common goals. The group has its own system of life orientations, ethics, morality, culture, and psychology, due to which an individual is formed by a special sense of the relation to each of them (Jaques, 2006). Society, in its actuality, functions as a collection of a myriad variety of groups. People say that one is social; it means that the person is social in so far as he participates in different groups and performs different functions. Most part of the person’s life takes place in small groups: family, educational and working collectives, friends, sports, culture, tourism, etc. Formation of the personality and demonstration of its quality happen exactly in these small groups, hence, the person cannot only be studied outside of it. Participation in small groups is a complex process, influenced by abilities and behavior of each member, competency, and also the dynamic nature of the discussion and static characteristics of the problem. When people do not clearly understand the role of their own, do not know what is expected from them, or do not see how to cope with their role, they lose their confidence. In order to understand the structure of the group and the processes occurring in it, it is necessary to determine what roles are played by members of the group. With the aim to form a formal, active, cohesive, and effective team, it is needed to choose the best set of employees with clearly defined roles. Balanced roles of the members of the group are the key to its success. The most prosperous in the assignments are the teams where the practical and realistic participants dominate. The very important factor is the role of at least one of the possible group executives - the coordinator or organizer, as much as the initiator, as a creative source of sensible ideas. The definition of roles in a group can be problematic, because the individual characteristics of the person are not always taken into account. Sometimes roles are not clearly delineated; therefore they are duplicated, or, on the contrary are performed by no one.
In small groups communication, the best classification of members’ roles that still deliver the general overview of this subject were proposed by Kenneth Benne and Paul Sheats (1948) (Lumsden & Lumsden, 1993; Beebe & Masterson, 2009). Members’ roles are divided into three main classes: group task roles, personal roles, and dysfunctional or individualistic roles. Leaders can perform these roles as well.
Group task roles. These roles help the group get the work done and concentrate on achieving its goals. They present the different roles one can perform in order to take a staged project from general concept through to action. …