Immigrants and Their Children in the United States: Caught Between Two Worlds
Immigrant’s children face different trajectories of integration into American society, depending on their demographic and socio-economic characteristic; however, biggest part of them constitute a risk group for downward assimilation and mental health problems. The consideration of key trends in immigrant children’s assimilation is extremely important, since recent demographic trends show that the number of immigrants in United States continues to grow (Migration Policy Institute, 2016). In addition, the socio-economic characteristic of immigrants’ children reveals that most of them are Limited English Proficient, live in poor families with parents who do not have high school diploma (Migration Policy Institute), which are the risk factors for downward assimilation. That is why, depending on socio-economic and demographic characteristics of immigrants’ children they could face rejection in American society, struggle with home and high poverty level.
I. Demographic trends
The demographic trends show that number of immigrants in United States increases every year and that immigrants’ children, together with their parents account for almost a third of the American population. According to data collected by American Community Survey (ACA), the number of immigrants in United States is equal to 43.3 million, which is 13.5 percent of the total American population (Migration Policy Institute, 2016). In 2015, the number of foreign-born population increased by 2.1 percent, which is 899.000, and in 2014, the growth rate was equal to 2.5 percent, which confirms the fact that immigrant population continues to grow (Migration Policy Institute, 2016). In addition, according to the Current Population Survey (CPS) U.S. born children and their parents number approximately 27 percent of the American population, which is 84.3 million (Migration Policy Institute, 2016). As a result, it could be assumed that immigrants are the constantly growing group, which will continue to increase.
In addition, recent demographic trends show that immigrant population is diverse in country of origin and their demographic distribution covers all regions in America. In 2015, India became the leading country of origin for new-comers, with 179.800 recent immigrants, followed by China, with 143.200 newcomers, Mexico, with 139.400, Philippines, with 47.500, and Canada, with 46.800 recent immigrants (Migration Policy Institute, 2016). For now, Mexicans are the largest group of immigrants in United States, and constitutes, approximately, 27 percent of foreign-born people in America. Indians are the next largest group of immigrants with close to 6 percent of foreign-born, which is followed by Chinese and Philippines who constitute five percent of immigrant population (Migration Policy Institute, 2016). Immigrants from Cuba, el Salvador and Vietnam make up 3 percent of the foreign-born population, while people from Guatemala, Korea and Dominican Republic are 2 percent of the immigrant population (Migration Policy Institute, 2016). Together, immigrants from these ten countries represent approximately 60 percent of the American immigrant population. The five states with the biggest number of immigrants are California, with 10 million, Texas, with 4.7 million, New York, 4.5 million, Florida, 4 million, and New Jersey, with 2 million (Migration Policy Institute, 2016). The …