Table of Contents
Lateral Stability 4
Electric Drive 4
Vibrations and Noise 5
Over the last two decades, the urgent issues, related to ice-covered Arctic and Antarctic waters, has been under consideration. In this regard, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) has enacted a set of special regulations and requirements for the ships operating in polar waters, which is called the polar code. Its primary aim is not only to enhance navigational safety but to reduce the disadvantages affecting both the mariners and the environment during the operation of the ships in polar areas.
It is obvious that the ships are required to possess some important qualities necessary for providing the safety of the environment and the mariners. These qualities include manoeuvrability, dynamics, lateral stability, electric drive and redundancy.
Manoeuvrability of a vessel includes its ability to regulate the velocity, change directions, rapidly make turns and also move forward and astern. There is no doubt that all of these items are essential for the ships, which operate in Arctic and Antarctic areas, to avoid numerous obstacles.
For example, “ice extent and thickness are critically important for navigation. Extent, or the area covered by at least 15% ice, grows and shrinks seasonally revealing open water in summer throughout much of the eastern Arctic” (Farré, 2014, p. 311). For this reason, the ability of the ship to be adapted to Arctic and Antarctic conditions is of high importance.
The previous quality is directly linked to dynamics, as in point of fact it is a phenomenon of the latter. Dynamics of the ship is defined by two kinds of motions, namely linear motions, such as heave, sway and surge, and rotation ones, such as pitch, roll and yaw. All the mentioned items can be hazardous not only to the ships operating in polar waters. Even the vessels remote from Arctic and Antarctic areas, for instance, could easily capsize.
According to Kreuzer and Pick (2003), the ship capsizing problem is one of the major challenges in naval architecture. There would be a catastrophic loss of life in consequence of the capsizing, not to mention damage to the environment. Therefore, the scientists from different countries try to find ways to solve this exact issue. For example, Kreuzer and Pick suggest one of the solutions in order to avoid the capsizing claiming that “a systematic analysis of each ship’s dynamics is necessary to provide criteria to prevent it from capsizing” (Kreuzer, Pick, 2003, p.87).
IV. Lateral Stability
Dynamics of the ship is closely related to its lateral stability, which in turn is one of the major qualities of any watercraft. It lies in the ability of the ship to withstand the external forces causing its heeling, and to reach after a radiant forcing its initial state. An external impact can be caused by many different reasons, for example, a yaw, a wave hit or a gust of strong wind.
Unfortunately, there are situations, in Arctic and Antarctic waters in particular, when the ships can become unstable in …