Aids Risk Reduction Model example

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AIDS Risk Reduction Model


AIDS prevention models must include community-level (interpersonal-level) theories and models of prevention, in addition to theories and interventions related only to individual level (Kelly et al., 1992). Individual level theories are not sufficient to explain such a complex construct as AIDS risk reduction, since they do not recognize the social and cultural factors that influence individual’s change of behaviors. Models must go beyond individual factors in order to be more effective in explaining behavioral changes and encouraging them in the community.Community-level AIDS risk reduction model attempt to change the community norms and attitudes, promote collective self-efficacy and hence reduce AIDS risk behavior (Kelly, 1999).

Constructs/concepts/variables trendsetters – popular, reputable and influential people in the community who can serve as role models(in this case, as role models for abandoning risk behaviors and engaging in protective behaviors)collective norms and attitudes – norms and attitudes shared among all (or majority) of the communitynorm- change - collective norms can be changed by strong social influence (i.e. if there is a strong message from the society and its reputable members that risk behavior is undesirable and harmful, members of the community would have tendency to abandon it and build protective behavior patterns in order to adjust to collective norms)

Principles social self-efficacy - an individual’s belief and confidence that he/she is able to engage in the social interactional tasks (Smith and Betz, 2000)social impact of role models – idea that important role models have impact on attitudes and behaviors of all (majority of) community members, hence they have great influential potential for changing community’s norms, attitudes and widespread behaviorsnorm – change approach - idea that changing social norms has an impact on behavior change at the individual level

Pros and Cons, Strengths and best uses

This model provide possibility to reduce risk behavior in the whole community by changing behavior of only few influential members

It is extensive and massive. Interventions based on this community model can reach large number of people (which individual-level models could not provide)

It is economical since it is not necessary to target all members of the community separately

First, trendsetters in a community should be identified

2) Then, they are trained and educated how to discourage risk behavior and promote protective behavior among their peers

3) As they present role models in their community, they have impact on behavior change among their peers II Example applications of the theory First controlled, test of an AIDS community-level prevention model (conducted in multiple cities), which results support hypothesis that norm-changing approaches can be useful to reduce AIDS risk behavior (Kelly et al., 1992)AIDS Community Demonstration Projects selected some community members and they had regular contact with the target population and trained them in engaging people, delivering the educational messages, and providing positive …

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